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BHUMIJ BHASA

HOLO KAJI
Mother Language bhumij bhasa-holobhasa(bhumij bhasa)
Bhumij bhasa holo bhasa.
Bhumij rajot holo rajot.
Bhumij dhorom sarna dhorom.
Script(LIPI)-OL-ONAL -LIPI
Nisan(Symble)-Veed-dhiri.
Jahira bonga,Mosan,Sosan,Sason,R-Nisan(Veed-Dhiri)
Sanskrutik-Magburu bonga,Sarhul Bonga,Buru Bonga,Karam Bonga
Bonoga buru Jaiyga- Jhhira
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Bhumij Schdule Tribes of List of 2001

(1)West Bengal-2,33,906                          (2) Odisha-2,40,000            (3) Jharkhand-2,11,500          
(4) Asam-1,96,000                                   (5) Bihar-5,000                   (6) Tripura-1,500            
(7) Arunachal Pradesh-20,000                  (8) Maharashtra-40,000       (9)   New delhi-40,000   
(10) Andaman and nicobar-10,000           (11)Bangladesh-26,000

Bhumij are a tribal/Adivasi people living primarily in the Indian states of West Bengal, Orissa and Jharkhand  mostly in the old Singhbhum district. They speak the Munda language(holo bhasa, holo rajot) of the Austroasiatic language family or sometimes the predominant local language such as Bengali.In the 2001 census, they numbered 336,436 in West Bengal, accounting for 7.6 per cent of the scheduled caste population of the state.[1] In Orissa, Bhumijes had a population ranging from 248,144 to 321,592 and were among the twelve most populous tribes.[2] In Jharkhand Bhumijes were one the eight most populous tribes, their population ranging between 164,022 and 192,024.[3] Bhumij means one who is born from the soil. They form one of the Hinduised Adivasi groups in Jharkhand.[4] Bhumij Kols have adopted the surname 'Singh.[5] 
Language Tools and Database for Schooling 
The primary difficulty in providing tribal population (at present nearly 4000) access to education, and bringing any semblance of quality to what goes in the name of education, arises from the language situation. In Odisha,Jharkhand, most states were created on linguistic basis, and the language of the state became the natural medium of schooling in the respective states. The Census of India lists nearly 200 ‘other’ languages with a population of 10,000 or above. Most of these ‘other’ languages are the language spoken by the tribal communities. The teachers appointed to schools in the tribal villages are in most cases drawn from outside the respective speech community. Often, the children do not understand the language that the teacher uses as the ‘medium’ of education; and invariably, the teacher does not understand the words that the children drawn from their daily life and use in the school environment. 

The Academy noticed this situation, after analyzing the results of our non-formal school work in tribal villages, run over a period of ten years, involving nearly 3100 primary school children. We decided to create ‘pictorial glossaries’ in 12 tribal languages to help the teachers in identifying the communication gaps between them and the students they teach. We also created a 6000 words dictionary for 12tribal languages of Bhumij for the same purpose. This has had a very significant effect on the quality of the class-room work. Bhasha has been carrying out a massive national level linguistic survey over the last three years. The survey, described as People’s Linguistic Survey of India, covers all States and Union Territories and has so far covered more than 12 languages. 

The Adivasi Academy plans to prepare pictorial glossaries and dictionaries for all tribal languages in India. When the creation of dictionaries is complete, the entire word stock can be placed in digital format in a single database. The database can be made available in the form of an ‘easy to use tablet’ to every teacher engaged in teaching tribal children. If such a tablet is made available to teachers, they will never get stuck for want of familiarity with the tribal languages. 

The benefit of this project for the educational empowerment of the tribal communities, as well as for the safeguarding of the forest habitat and resolving the long standing land conflicts will be enormous.

BHUMIJ BHASA

1. Limits and Limitations
Before concluding this chapter we must be clear about the scope of this study. 
1) This study is limited to the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the three 
States. Comparisons with non- Scheduled Caste and non Scheduled Tribe to 
simple statistical analysis.populations do not fall within the purview of this study. 
2) Our sample of purposively selected panchayats and urban settlements within the 
three States, cannot do considered as representative of the respective States. For 
example, populous castes like the Namasudras in West Bengal have not figured 
prominently in our sample. Besides, certain regions and many districts are not 
covered by the study. 
3) Compared to the volume of data collected, the analysis is selective and restricted 
Notwithstanding these limitations, we can assert that our data do serve as pointers 
to trends which they reveal. These trends are not be generalisable for the States under 
study. Yet they are true for the areas studied. These should lead to valuable and serious 
hypotheses.

References: 

Asian Development Research : Jharkhand Development : Issues and Strategies, Unpublished, 2000. 

WEST BENGAL (Bhumij)
Bhumij Their consumption of milk is negligible but tea is drunk regularly. A sweet dish (qulia) and puri are special food items. They drink alcoholic beverages. centrated in the districts of Midnapore, Purulia, Bankura and 24 Parganas in West Bengal.They inhabit the forest clad rugged terranis. According to the 1981 census, their total population is 2,33,906, of which more than 98 per cent returned from rural areas. They speak Bhumij,an Austro-Asiatic language at home; however, of late their mother tongue has been influenced by the Indo-Aryan language Bengali, which they use while communicating with other communities. They use the Bengali script. They exhibit a low frequency of sickle cell trait (6 per cent). They are non-vegetarians but do not eat beef or pork. Rice is their staple food. Drinks like rice beer and toddy are commonly consumed by them

Language Tools and Database for Schooling 

The primary difficulty in providing tribal population (at present nearly 4000) access to education, and bringing any semblance of quality to what goes in the name of education, arises from the language situation. In Odisha,Jharkhand, most states were created on linguistic basis, and the language of the state became the natural medium of schooling in the respective states. The Census of India lists nearly 200 ‘other’ languages with a population of 10,000 or above. Most of these ‘other’ languages are the language spoken by the tribal communities. The teachers appointed to schools in the tribal villages are in most cases drawn from outside the respective speech community. Often, the children do not understand the language that the teacher uses as the ‘medium’ of education; and invariably, the teacher does not understand the words that the children drawn from their daily life and use in the school environment. 

The Academy noticed this situation, after analyzing the results of our non-formal school work in tribal villages, run over a period of ten years, involving nearly 3100 primary school children. We decided to create ‘pictorial glossaries’ in 12 tribal languages to help the teachers in identifying the communication gaps between them and the students they teach. We also created a 6000 words dictionary for 12tribal languages of Bhumij for the same purpose. This has had a very significant effect on the quality of the class-room work. Bhasha has been carrying out a massive national level linguistic survey over the last three years. The survey, described as People’s Linguistic Survey of India, covers all States and Union Territories and has so far covered more than 700 languages. 

The Adivasi Academy plans to prepare pictorial glossaries and dictionaries for all tribal languages in India. When the creation of dictionaries is complete, the entire word stock can be placed in digital format in a single database. The database can be made available in the form of an ‘easy to use tablet’ to every teacher engaged in teaching tribal children. If such a tablet is made available to teachers, they will never get stuck for want of familiarity with the tribal languages. 

The benefit of this project for the educational empowerment of the tribal communities, as well as for the safeguarding of the forest habitat and resolving the long standing land conflicts will be enormous.

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